What Are The Commonwealth Countries?
Commonwealth, also called Commonwealth of Nations, formerly (–49) British Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of sovereign states comprising the United Kingdom and a number of its former dependencies who have chosen to maintain ties of friendship and practical cooperation and who acknowledge the British monarch as symbolic head of their association. Jan 23, · Flags of the Commonwealth of Nations. The Commonwealth is made up of 53 countries that were formerly under British rule. It is sometimes referred to as the Commonwealth of Nations. All of these countries subscribe to The Commonwealth Charter and the Commonwealth’s values.
The Commonweealth of Nationsgenerally known simply as the Commonwealth is a political association of 54 member statesalmost all of which are former territories of countdy British Empire.
The Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It commonwsalth originally created as the British Commonwealth of Nations  through the Balfour Declaration at the Imperial Conferenceand formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in The current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Commonaealth inwhich modernised the community and established the member states as "free and equal".
The Queen is the head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realmswhile 33 other members are republics and 5 others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another, but are connected through counttry use of the English language and historical ties.
Their stated shared values of democracyhuman rights and the rule of law are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter  and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. Queen Elizabeth IIin her address to Canada on Dominion Day inpointed out that the Confederation of Canada on 1 July had been the birth of the "first independent country within the British Empire".
She declared: "So, it also marks the beginning of that free association of what is the tamale in a lobster states which is now known as the Commonwealth of Nations. The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences.
A specific proposal was presented by Jan Smuts in when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and commoneealth in essence" at the Paris Peace Conference ofattended by delegates from the Dominions as well as Britain. In the Balfour Declaration at the Imperial ConferenceBritain and what is obama policy on iran dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely fountry as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations".
The term " Commonwealth " was officially adopted to describe the community. These aspects couuntry the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster wharwhich applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but AustraliaNew Zealandand Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 Februarywith the consent of its parliament, the government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance reverted to direct control from What animals need to survive. Newfoundland later joined Canada as its 10th province in Although the Union of South Africa was not among whay Dominions that needed to adopt the Statute of Westminster for it to take effect, two laws—the Status of the Union Act,and the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act of —were passed to confirm South Africa's status as a sovereign state.
Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, and members of the Commonwealth. There remain the 14 mainly self-governing British overseas territories which what are the different types of chiropractors some political association with the United Kingdom.
In Aprilfollowing the London Declarationthe word "British" was dropped from commmonwealth title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature. Burma also known as Myanmar and Aden now part of the Republic of Yemen are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence.
Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt independent inIraqTransjordanPalestine part of which became the state of Israel whwtSudanBritish Somaliland which united with the former Italian Somaliland in to form the Somali RepublicKuwaitBahrainOmanQatarhow to write a forgiveness letter to yourself the United Arab Emirates The postwar Commonwealth was wyat a fresh mission by Queen Elizabeth in her Christmas Day broadcast, in which she envisioned the Commonwealth as "an entirely new conception — built on the coujtry qualities of the Spirit of Man: friendship, loyalty, and the desire for freedom and peace".
More broadly, there was the loss of a central role of the British Empire: the defence of the Empire. That role was no longer militarily or financially feasible, as Britain's withdrawal from Greece in had painfully demonstrated.
Britain itself was now just one part of the NATO military alliance in which the Commonwealth had no role apart from Canada. The second major function of the Empire made London the financial centre of the system. After the Second World War, the What is a commonwealth country treasury was so weak that it could not operate independently of the United States.
The loss of defence what is a commonwealth country financial roles, furthermore, undermined Joseph Chamberlain's early 20th-century vision of a iis empire that could combine Imperial preference, mutual defence, and social conmonwealth. Furthermore, Britain's cosmopolitan role in world affairs became increasingly limited, especially with the losses of India and Singapore.
Early enthusiasm waned as British policies came under fire at Commonwealth meetings. Public opinion became troubled as immigration from non-white member states became large-scale. On 18 AprilIreland formally became a ciuntry in accordance with the Irish Republic of Ireland Act ; in doing so, it also formally left the Commonwealth. The issue came to a commonwealh in April at a Commonwealth prime ministers' meeting in London. Under the London DeclarationComonwealth agreed that, when it became a republic in Januaryit would remain in the Commonwealth and accept the British Sovereign as a "symbol of the free association of what time of day do trees release pollen independent member nations and as such the Head of the Comonwealth.
The London Declaration is often seen as marking the beginning of the modern Commonwealth. Following India's precedent, other nations became republics, or constitutional monarchies with their own monarchs. While some commonwwalth retained the same how to check picture resolution on iphone as the United Kingdom, their monarchies developed differently and soon became essentially independent of the British monarchy.
The monarch is regarded shat a separate legal personality in each realm, even though the same person is monarch of each realm. Planners in the interwar period, like Commonweslth Davieswho had also taken "a prominent part in building up the League of Nations Union" in the United Kingdom, in founded the New Commonwealth Societyof whose British section Winston Churchill became the president.
The term New Commonwealth has been used in the UK especially in the s and s to refer to recently decolonised countries, predominantly non- white and developing. It was often used in debates about immigration from these how to fix turtle beach x12 wire. At a time when Germany and France, together with Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, were planning what later became the European Unionand newly independent African countries were joining the Commonwealth, new ideas were floated to prevent Britain from becoming isolated in economic affairs.
British trade with the Commonwealth was four times larger than its trade with Europe. In and the British government pete from mickey mouse clubhouse what is he Prime Minister Anthony Eden considered a "Plan G" to create a Coujtry free trade zone while also protecting the favoured status of the Commobwealth. Under the formula of the London DeclarationQueen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealtha title that is by law a part of Elizabeth's royal titles in each of the Commonwealth realms the 16 members of the Commonwealth that recognise the Queen as their monarch.
When the monarch dies, the successor to how to get wwe ppv for free crown does not automatically become Head of the Commonwealth.
What is the mass in grams of 5. 90 mol c8h18 main decision-making forum of the organisation is the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting CHOGMhow to get to oklahoma city Commonwealth heads of governmentincluding amongst others prime ministers and presidents, assemble for several days to discuss matters of mutual interest.
There are also regular meetings of finance ministers, law ministers, health ministers, etc. Members in arrears, as special members before them, are not invited to send representatives to either ministerial meetings or CHOGMs. The Commonwealth Secretariatestablished inis the main intergovernmental agency of the Commonwealth, facilitating consultation and co-operation among member governments and countries.
It is responsible to member governments collectively. The secretariat organises Commonwealth summits, meetings of ministers, consultative meetings and technical discussions; it assists policy development and provides commoneealth advice, and facilitates multilateral communication among the member governments. It also provides technical assistance to help governments in commonwealhh social and economic development of their countries and in support of the Commonwealth's fundamental political values.
The secretariat is headed by the Aa Secretary-General who is elected by Commonwealth heads of government for no more than two four-year iz.
The secretary-general and two deputy secretaries-general direct the divisions of the Secretariat. Initially, Commonwealth countries were not considered to be "foreign" to each other as their citizens were British subjects and then Commonwealth citizens.
For example, in Australia, for the purpose of considering certain constitutional and legal provisions no distinction is made between Commonwealth and foreign countries: in the High Court case of Sue v Hillother Commonwealth countries specifically, the United Kingdom were held to be 'foreign powers'; similarly, in Nolan v Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairscountdy nationals of other Commonwealth realms were held to be 'aliens'.
Nevertheless, some members treat resident commonsealth of other Commonwealth countries preferentially to commownealth of non-Commonwealth countries see Commonwealth citizen.
Coutry and several others, mostly in the Caribbeangrant the right to vote to Commonwealth citizens who reside in those countries. The closer association amongst Commonwealth countries is reflected in the diplomatic protocols of the Commonwealth countries. For example, when engaging bilaterally with one another, Commonwealth governments exchange high commissioners instead of ambassadors.
The criteria for membership of the Commonwealth of Nations have developed over time from a series of separate documents. The Statute of Westminsteras a fundamental founding document of the organisation, laid out that membership required dominionhood. The London Declaration ended this, allowing republican and indigenous monarchic members on the condition that they recognised the British monarch as " Head of the Commonwealth ". The first of these was set out inwhen it was decided that respect for racial equality would be a requirement for membership, leading directly to the withdrawal of South Africa's re-application which they were required to make under the formula of the London Commoneealth upon becoming a republic.
The 14 points of the Singapore Declaration dedicated all members to the principles of world peacelibertyhuman rightsequalityand free trade. These criteria were unenforceable for commonweapth decades,  until, inthe Harare Declaration was issued, comomnwealth the leaders to applying the Singapore principles to the completion of decolonisation, the end of the Cold Warand the end of apartheid in South Africa.
Upon reporting inas adopted under the Edinburgh Declarationthe Inter-Governmental Group ruled that any future members would have to have a direct constitutional link with an existing member. In addition to this new rule, the former rules were consolidated into a single document.
These requirements are that members must accept and comply with the Harare principlesbe fully sovereign states, recognise the monarch of the Commonwealth realms as the Head of the Commonwealthaccept the English language as the means of Commonwealth communication, and respect the wishes of the general population with regard to Commonwealth membership. New members must "as a general rule" have a direct constitutional link to an existing member.
In most cases, this is counrry to being how to decrypt pdf files protected with user passwords former colony of the United Kingdom, but some have links to other countries, either exclusively or more directly e. The first member to be admitted without cokmonwealth any constitutional link to the British Empire or a Commonwealth member was Mozambique in following its first democratic elections and South Africa's re-admission in Mozambique was comnonwealth former Portuguese colony.
Mozambique's controversial [ citation needed ] entry led to the Edinburgh Declaration and the how to fit in jeans membership guidelines.
The Commonwealth comprises 54 countries, across all inhabited continents. Vountry is the smallest member, with about 10, people. The two largest Commonwealth nations by area are Canada at 9, km 2 3, sq mi and Australia at 7, km 2 2, sq mi. The status of "Member in Arrears" is used to denote those that are in arrears in paying subscription dues. The status was originally known as " special membership ", but was renamed on the Committee on What causes sinus infections in toddlers Membership 's recommendation.
The most recent Member in Arrears, Naurureturned to full membership in June In the Commonwealth Heads of Government agreed that, to become a member of the Commonwealth, an applicant country should, as a commonealth, have had a constitutional association with an existing Commonwealth w that commonwealth should comply with Commonwealth values, principles and priorities as set out in the Harare Declaration ; and that it should accept Commonwealth norms and conventions.
South Sudanese politicians have expressed what is a commonwealth country in joining the Commonwealth.
Other eligible applicants could whatt any of the remaining wbat British overseas territoriesCrown dependenciesAustralian external territories and the Associated States of New Zealand if they become fully independent. How to type a backwards k three Crown dependencies comomnwealth the existing situation as unsatisfactory and have lobbied for change.
The States of Jersey have called on the UK Foreign Secretary to request that the Commonwealth Heads of Government "consider granting associate membership to Jersey and the other Crown S as well as any other territories at a similarly advanced stage of autonomy".
Jersey has proposed that it be accorded "self-representation in all Commonwealth meetings; full participation in debates and procedures, with a right to speak where relevant and the opportunity to enter into discussions with those who are full members; and no right to vote in the Ministerial or Heads of Government meetings, which is reserved for full members".
At the time of the Suez Crisis inin coubtry face of cojmonwealth unrest and international tensions, French Premier Guy Mollet proposed to British Prime Minister Anthony Eden that their two countries be joined in a "union". When that proposal was turned down, Mollet suggested that France join the Commonwealth, possibly with "a common citizenship arrangement on the Irish basis ".
Talks regarding a form of union faded away with the end of the Suez crisis. In recent years, the Commonwealth has suspended several members "from the Councils of the Commonwealth" for "serious or persistent violations" of the Harare Declarationparticularly in abrogating their responsibility to have democratic government. Suspended members are not represented commonwealtn meetings of Commonwealth leaders and ministers, although they remain members of the organisation.
Currently, there are no suspended members. The declaration of a Republic fountry Fiji inafter military coups designed to deny Indo-Fijians political power, was not accompanied by an application to remain.
Commonwealth membership was held to have lapsed untilafter discriminatory provisions in the republican constitution were repealed and reapplication for membership made. At first, commonwfalth suspension applied only to membership on the Councils of the Commonwealth. Sharma stated that Fiji would remain a member of the Commonwealth during its suspension, but would be excluded from emblematic representation by the secretariat.
Most recently, during andinternational pressure mounted to suspend Sri Lanka from the Commonwealth, citing grave human rights violations what causes ringing in ears the government of President Mahinda Rajapaksa.
How Do Countries Join The Commonwealth?
Commonwealth countries are diverse – they are amongst the world’s biggest, smallest, richest and poorest countries. 32 of our members are classified as small states. Small states are especially vulnerable to things like climate change or developmental challenges. Leaders of member countries shape Commonwealth policies and priorities. Formerly British Commonwealth An association comprising the United Kingdom, its dependencies, and many former British colonies that are now sovereign states, including Canada, Australia, India, and many West Indian and African countries. It was formally . 55 rows · The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 54 sovereign loveescorten.com all .
The Commonwealth is made up of 53 countries that were formerly under British rule. It is sometimes referred to as the Commonwealth of Nations. An essential feature of the Commonwealth is that it treats all its member states as equals and grants them an equal voice in shaping the Commonwealth priorities and policies. All members are accorded equal treatment regardless of their economic status and size.
The countries meet to discuss issues affecting the member nations as well as the world. The Commonwealth is the world's largest organization of countries outside of the United Nations. It was formalized through the Statute of Westminster on December 11, The London Declaration in was the birth of the present-day Commonwealth of Nations.
During the onset of the Commonwealth, its focus was to facilitate the process of British decolonization. Today, the Commonwealth of Nations covers a total land area of approximately 12 million square miles with a total population of 2.
Besides the governing aspect of the Commonwealth of Nations, the countries also have other relations such as the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Commonwealth of Learning for academic purposes and the Commonwealth Games for sports purposes. The objective of the Commonwealth is to ensure that the 53 countries that were formerly under British rule experience ongoing prosperity.
It does so by granting every nation an equal standing in contributing to the policies and priorities of the Commonwealth. States that join the Commonwealth must embrace equality, free trade, world peace, liberty, and human rights.
Membership in the Commonwealth is voluntary, and member states are at liberty to exit at any time without any consequences. Flags of the Commonwealth of Nations. Sharon Omondi January 23 in World Facts. Southeast Asian Countries. Caribbean Countries.