The IQ Scale is a total score that is derived from certain standardized tests that are designed to assess the human intelligence. From Binet’s work the IQ scale called the “Binet Scale,” (and later the “Simon-Binet Scale”) was developed. Sometime later, “intelligence quotient,” or “IQ,” entered our vocabulary.
At this point in the series I wanted to know how the reader would score on tests that he did not select for himself but that I chose for him. I figured a good measure of overall IQ would consist of at least 3 major cognitive domains, so the domains I selected were Verbal, Visual, and Numerical.
Originally Vocabulary was considered too culturally biased to be one of sfale core subtests, but was used as an alternate subtest. Wechsler randomly selected words from the dictionary that were then tried out on groups of people of known intelligence. Those words that best discriminated between the bright and dull were included in the final selection of 42 words that were used in the standardization.
When the reader was given rare access to this ancient list, he got full credit 1 point for 34 of the 42 words and partial credit 0. But since the white population of the U. When the reader was asked to take this test his self-reported score was Assuming that on a scale where Americans have a mean of and an SD of 15, the Ontarians, like Canadians on the what bait to use for eels score Although my amateur clinical impression just from reading a few of his emails is that the reader sca,e not autistic, his relatively low Gestalt might suggest otherwise because one theory is autistics lack big picture thinking.
More testing is needed to confirm or debunk this hypothesis. The PATMA is a quick test of lateral mathematical reasoning that appears to be exceptionally g loaded. The reader self-reports how to make retractable id badge holder score of 8 out of Overall global intellectual ability: Full-scale IQ mild genius. April 16, at am. The medication propranolol has really helped me.
It has reduced the tension headaches and tes uncomfortableness I feel. Now I can relax and meditate normally. Perceptual awareness has increased. Lerenzo said:. April 16, at pm. The Philosopher said:. Lamarckxism said:. Neandercel said:. Is your final estimate of on US norms, or white norms? Does an I. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using tje Google account.
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Like this: Like Loading Lerenzo said: April 16, at pm. Go easy on me. View post on imgur. The Philosopher said: April 16, at pm. Autism is what happens when mama bear is a software programmer and papa bear is an engineer.
Lamarckxism said: April 16, at pm. Pill is when the mama is a whore and the papa is the alcoholic trailer jobless Reply. Neandercel said: April 16, at pm. Thanks for writing these, PP! Insightful and entertaining as always.
Yes, white norms would be Reply. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public. Scald required.
Original IQ Rating Scale
IQ or Intelligence Quotient is a total score which is derived from one of the various standardized tests. IQ tests are designed to assess the human intelligence. The abbreviation 'IQ' was coined by the person William Stern. He is a German psychologist and philosopher. An IQ test is an assessment that measures a range of cognitive abilities and provides a score that is intended to serve as a measure of an individual's intellectual abilities and potential. IQ tests are among the most commonly administered psychological tests. Jan 26, · An IQ score is a numerical representation of an individual’s intelligence within a normalized scale of test results. Most modern tests are adjusted so that the mean score is , including the most popular Wechsler Intelligence tests.
An intelligence quotient IQ is a total score derived from a set of standardized tests or subtests designed to assess human intelligence. Historically, IQ was a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months. The resulting fraction quotient was multiplied by to obtain the IQ score.
Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence. Unlike, for example, distance and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of " intelligence ". IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability , and evaluating job applicants. In research contexts, they have been studied as predictors of job performance  and income.
Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect. Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can also inform current research on human intelligence.
Historically, even before IQ tests were devised, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life. Both intelligence classification by observation of behavior outside the testing room and classification by IQ testing depend on the definition of "intelligence" used in a particular case and on the reliability and error of estimation in the classification procedure.
The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a person's intelligence. A pioneer of psychometrics and the application of statistical methods to the study of human diversity and the study of inheritance of human traits, he believed that intelligence was largely a product of heredity by which he did not mean genes , although he did develop several pre-Mendelian theories of particulate inheritance.
After gathering data on a variety of physical variables, he was unable to show any such correlation, and he eventually abandoned this research. It was intended to identify mental retardation in school children,  but in specific contradistinction to claims made by psychiatrists that these children were "sick" not "slow" and should therefore be removed from school and cared for in asylums.
For example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks usually passed by six-year-olds—but nothing beyond—would have a mental age that matched his chronological age, 6.
Fancher, Binet thought that intelligence was multifaceted, but came under the control of practical judgment. In Binet's view, there were limitations with the scale and he stressed what he saw as the remarkable diversity of intelligence and the subsequent need to study it using qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, measures White, American psychologist Henry H.
Goddard published a translation of it in It became the most popular test in the United States for decades. The many different kinds of IQ tests include a wide variety of item content.
Some test items are visual, while many are verbal. Test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge. The British psychologist Charles Spearman in made the first formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests.
He observed that children's school grades across seemingly unrelated school subjects were positively correlated, and reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests. He suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor and a large number of narrow task-specific ability factors.
Spearman named it g for "general factor" and labeled the specific factors or abilities for specific tasks s. Typically, the " g -loaded" composite score of an IQ test battery appears to involve a common strength in abstract reasoning across the test's item content. During World War I, the Army needed a way to evaluate and assign recruits to appropriate tasks.
This led to the development of several mental tests by Robert Yerkes , who worked with major hereditarians of American psychometrics—including Terman, Goddard—to write the test.
Nonverbal or "performance" tests were developed for those who could not speak English or were suspected of malingering. At the start of the war, the army and national guard maintained nine thousand officers.
By the end, two hundred thousand officers presided, and two- thirds of them had started their careers in training camps where the tests were applied. In some camps, no man scoring below C could be considered for officer training.
The results of these tests, which at the time reaffirmed contemporary racism and nationalism, are considered controversial and dubious, having rested on certain contested assumptions: that intelligence was heritable, innate, and could be relegated to a single number, the tests were enacted systematically, and test questions actually tested for innate intelligence rather than subsuming environmental factors.
Thurstone argued for a model of intelligence that included seven unrelated factors verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, reasoning, and induction.
While not widely used, Thurstone's model influenced later theories. David Wechsler produced the first version of his test in It gradually became more popular and overtook the Stanford-Binet in the s. It has been revised several times, as is common for IQ tests, to incorporate new research.
One explanation is that psychologists and educators wanted more information than the single score from the Binet. Wechsler's ten or more subtests provided this. Another is that the Stanford-Binet test reflected mostly verbal abilities, while the Wechsler test also reflected nonverbal abilities. The Stanford-Binet has also been revised several times and is now similar to the Wechsler in several aspects, but the Wechsler continues to be the most popular test in the United States.
Eugenics , a set of beliefs and practices aimed at improving the genetic quality of the human population by excluding people and groups judged to be inferior and promoting those judged to be superior,    played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States during the Progressive Era , from the late 19th century until US involvement in World War II. The American eugenics movement was rooted in the biological determinist ideas of the British Scientist Sir Francis Galton.
In , Galton first used the word eugenics to describe the biological improvement of human genes and the concept of being "well-born". Goddard was a eugenicist. In , he published his own version, The Binet and Simon Test of Intellectual Capacity , and cordially promoted the test. He quickly extended the use of the scale to the public schools , to immigration Ellis Island , and to a court of law Unlike Galton, who promoted eugenics through selective breeding for positive traits, Goddard went with the US eugenics movement to eliminate "undesirable" traits.
He argued that "feeble-mindedness" was caused by heredity, and thus feeble-minded people should be prevented from giving birth, either by institutional isolation or sterilization surgeries. Goddard's intelligence test was endorsed by the eugenicists to push for laws for forced sterilization. Different states adopted the sterilization laws at different pace. These laws, whose constitutionality was upheld by the Supreme Court in their ruling Buck v.
Bell , forced over 64, people to go through sterilization in the United States. California's sterilization program was so effective that the Nazis turned to the government for advice on how to prevent the birth of the "unfit". Raymond Cattell proposed two types of cognitive abilities in a revision of Spearman's concept of general intelligence. Fluid intelligence Gf was hypothesized as the ability to solve novel problems by using reasoning, and crystallized intelligence Gc was hypothesized as a knowledge-based ability that was very dependent on education and experience.
In addition, fluid intelligence was hypothesized to decline with age, while crystallized intelligence was largely resistant to the effects of aging. The theory was almost forgotten, but was revived by his student John L. Horn who later argued Gf and Gc were only two among several factors, and who eventually identified nine or ten broad abilities. The theory continued to be called Gf-Gc theory. John B.
Carroll , after a comprehensive reanalysis of earlier data, proposed the three stratum theory , which is a hierarchical model with three levels. The bottom stratum consists of narrow abilities that are highly specialized e. The second stratum consists of broad abilities. Carroll identified eight second-stratum abilities. Carroll accepted Spearman's concept of general intelligence, for the most part, as a representation of the uppermost, third stratum.
In , a merging of the Gf-Gc theory of Cattell and Horn with Carroll's Three-Stratum theory has led to the Cattell—Horn—Carroll theory CHC Theory , with g as the top of the hierarchy, ten broad abilities below, and further subdivided into seventy narrow abilities on the third stratum. Modern tests do not necessarily measure all of these broad abilities. More recent research has shown the situation to be more complex. Although they still give an overall score, they now also give scores for many of these more restricted abilities, identifying particular strengths and weaknesses of an individual.
An alternative to standard IQ tests, meant to test the proximal development of children, originated in the writings of psychologist Lev Vygotsky — during his last two years of his life. The difference between this level of potential and the lower level of unassisted performance indicates the child's zone of proximal development.
Dynamic assessment has been further elaborated in the work of Ann Brown , and John D. Bransford and in theories of multiple intelligences authored by Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg. Guilford 's Structure of Intellect model of intelligence used three dimensions, which, when combined, yielded a total of types of intelligence. It was popular in the s and early s, but faded owing to both practical problems and theoretical criticisms.
It argued that only looking at one general factor was inadequate for researchers and clinicians who worked with learning disabilities, attention disorders, intellectual disability, and interventions for such disabilities. The planning processes involve decision making, problem solving, and performing activities and requires goal setting and self-monitoring. Simultaneous processing involves the integration of stimuli into a group and requires the observation of relationships.
Successive processing involves the integration of stimuli into serial order. There are a variety of individually administered IQ tests in use in the English-speaking world.
IQ scales are ordinally scaled. In particular, IQ points are not percentage points. Psychometricians generally regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliability. Like all statistical quantities, any particular estimate of IQ has an associated standard error that measures uncertainty about the estimate. For modern tests, the confidence interval can be approximately 10 points and reported standard error of measurement can be as low as about three points. Outside influences such as low motivation or high anxiety can occasionally lower a person's IQ test score.
Reliability and validity are very different concepts. While reliability reflects reproducibility, validity refers to lack of bias.
A biased test does not measure what it purports to measure. For this reason, psychologist Wayne Weiten argues that their construct validity must be carefully qualified, and not be overstated. But if the purpose is to assess intelligence in a broader sense, the validity of IQ tests is questionable.
Some scientists have disputed the value of IQ as a measure of intelligence altogether. Along these same lines, critics such as Keith Stanovich do not dispute the capacity of IQ test scores to predict some kinds of achievement, but argue that basing a concept of intelligence on IQ test scores alone neglects other important aspects of mental ability.